Java is easily the most popular language of the last two decades. Due to its wide range of features, including the cross-platform compatibility, strong community, an extensive list of libraries, and high security, it has been the first and foremost option for the developers in coding business and enterprise systems for both the public and private sector.
However, earlier Java web development used to be too complex as the ecosystem and tools were confusing for many coders. As a result, many developers had to scratch their heads while reading through hundreds of pages of official documentation for the software bugs that can even originate from a single line code in a class. Luckily, today Java’s ecosystem has been bolstered by the arrival of several frameworks that has made programming on the web for Java easier, and Java no longer bears the tag of the most difficult language for the web. Some of these frameworks are the following.
Spring was and still is one of the most popular web frameworks in Java. Spring is a light-weight framework as Spring uses various technologies like Hibernate, Tapestry, etc. Thus, it thus can be implemented for a wide segment of web applications. Spring employs a software engineering concept known as dependency injection through the use of either a construction injection or setter injection. Through Spring’s container, the hard coupling of Java objects is reduced. Moreover, another programming framework called the Aspect Oriented Programming is used in Spring. This focuses on the modularization of concerns, making it easier to deal with middleware development.
Spring helps greatly in the elimination of presentation and business logic and minimizes the previously existed complexities that existed with the J2EE frameworks. Spring is flexible and assists coders with the elimination of a framework-specific base class. With the addition of Model View Architecture, it allows data binding and efficient management of data models.
JSF (Java Server Faces)
One of the biggest problems with a web back-end project is not only the design and development. For enterprises, continuous updates and maintenance are a frequent requirement. However, with JSF corporate developers can easily maintain their code with the support of modern software architectures. With a JSF web application, you can map component-specific event handling with HTTP requests while the server can also be used to treat the components as stateful objects. Java Server Faces eases back-end development through the introduction of an approach that centers on components, which helps in the coding of the web UIs. This is made possible due to JSF’s Facelets that help in the design of the views in web projects with the integration of HTML. Moreover, JSF has in-built support for AJAX.
JSF is chosen by developers for enterprise systems as they are handy for corporate development. For beginners, the drag-and-drop feature will facilitate the design of sleek and elegant user interfaces. For senior developers, the JSF API provides high customization.
If you desire a speedy framework without any compromise on the scalability, then Play Framework 2 is a good option. This means that you can edit your code and refresh it to see instant results. Moreover, with support for non-blocking I/0, the performance of an application is highly improved through remote calls in parallel.
Unlike the previous Java web frameworks’, Play rescues developers from the complexity of Servlets and provides modern components of web development frameworks including REST, JSON, NoSQL, and ORM. Furthermore, due to its support for JVM, developers who have to transition from Java to Scala find it convenient due to the community and libraries support. Additionally, with its integration with front-end technology like CoffeeScript and Less, it has received considerable praise for being one of the most promising new Java frameworks in the last few years.
Google Web Toolkit (GWT)
Are you a full stack web developer working with React and Vue JS? Or do you focus solely on the back-end logic?
For full stack developers, Google Web Toolkit provides a great advantage for design and development of both front-end and back-end development. GWT was released in 2006 by Google for its own use. Seven years later, Google made it open source and it gained popularity quickly due to Google’s extensive documentation and support for the framework for a variety of development environments and technologies.
If you are familiar with the JVM ecosystem and write code in Groovy, then Grails can provide an easier learning curve for a shift in Java web development. Grails also has an extensive support for Java libraries and boasts availability of 700+ plugins. Grails also employ the modern day programming ideology of ‘convention over configuration’, limiting the lines of code.
Moreover, if the requirement of CRUD functionalities is a recurrent theme in your development then Grails’ Scaffolding makes it a breeze. Furthermore, if you are also involved in the Search Engine Optimization of your website, then the websites developed on Grails are easy to optimize for better search engine results. Additionally, with Grails’ GORM, developers have an access to a reliable data tool for linking with relational databases and NoSQL, including MongoFB.
With such powerful tools at your disposal, web development in Java has never been easier. If you have a wide range of web projects, then Spring MVC is the go-to option, while JSF can assist in the upgrade and maintenance of enterprise systems. If you require a framework for full stack development for working with both the front-end and back-end and also require sufficient documentation, then Google Web Toolkit is quite powerful, while for a stateless and non-blocking project, Play 2 can be the best solution.